Worksheets: Long words
- Created: Thursday, 26 July 2012 09:04
- Updated on Wednesday, 07 September 2016 10:22
This resource page contains many examples of picture-and-word work sheets intended for use in speech-language pathology intervention.
The sheets were made in Microsoft Word, using copyright-free pictures from Microsoft Clip Art and Media and converted into portable document files (pdfs) with Adobe Acrobat.
The vocabulary represents (non-rhotic) Australian English pronunciation, and although most of the words and minimal pairs will 'work' in other dialects of English you may need to discard some. For example, pairs like saw-shore, and spa-star are minimal pairs in Australian English and in other non-rhotic varieties of English, but not in rhotic dialects such as Canadian, Irish, Scottish and most US 'Englishes'.
SLPs/SLTs and students are invited to use these worksheets and other resources when working with children with speech sound disorders. You are free to save them to your computer and to customize them to suit individual clients and to fit your service delivery model. Restrictions that apply to their use are stated in the copyright notice.
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university nursery apartments escalator magician origami hospital tomato ambulance tambourine elephant W helicopter carnation Doberman photocopier spaghetti astronaut
alphabet broccoli dinosaur Pentagon bicycle fire-extinguisher basketball satellite avocado dictionary casserole hammerhead volcano accordion chandelier calendar watermelon supermarket
caterpillar tape-measure orchestra motorbike rattlesnake hippopotamus ballerina caravan electrician pineapple macramé hairdresser unicycle calculator Nefertiti octopus excavator balaclava
computer geranium entertainer detergent zucchini vaccination synthesizer exclamation honeycomb rhinoceros letterbox cauliflower kookaburra potato cheeseburger butterfly locomotive Saturday
grasshopper Australia saxophone cucumber President injury screwdriver wallaby karaoke nasturtium equestrian fire-engine photographer marshmallow noticeboard rehearsal aquarium cinema
geography terminal manicure autograph accident harvester architect refrigerator family unicorn mercury tourniquet celebration dishwasher wallpaper crocodile gallery telescope
library envelope decorations animal passengers trampoline chimpanzee competition recycling banana cinnamon magnolia safari newspaper pillow-fight minibus strawberry coriander
utensils ceremony commuters imagination microwave rocking-horse conditioner detective operation microscope explorers potholder emergency binoculars concertina television punctuation spectacles
conductor wheelbarrow alligator punishment telephone radiator elevator kimono stethoscope armadillo passionfruit tiddlywinks bikini colander pedestrian Cinderella champion magazine
kangaroo anorak harmonica apricot flamingo buttonhole pyjamas cafeteria triangle gooseberries Pinocchio material pelican Colosseum underpants receptionist examination cereal
pantomime skyscraper deerstalker Thoroughbred bitumen rectangle pigeonholes sou’wester cuttlefish Rapunzel bandages Dalmatian minaret lemonade porcupine candelabra 70 daffodil
goanna poinsettia marathon xylophone composer ornament domino paediatrician cockatoo dinner-jacket jellyfish lollipop koala advertisements celery neopolitan director hexagon
loudspeaker sugarcane percolator echidna safety-pin tuxedo manuscript perspiration medicine duffel-bag India currency miniature influenza chocolate eye-shadow comedian albatross
Australia Western Australia Northern Territory South Australia Queensland New South Wales Canberra Victoria Tasmania kangaroo wallaby echidna koala kookaburra cockatoo lorikeet rosella currawang bowerbird willy-wagtail peach-face platypus bilby Tasmanian-devil wombat dingo bandicoot billabong dot-painting Christmas-beetle witchetty-grub funnel-web crocodile goanna monitor carpet-python copperhead waratah grevillea boronia flannel-flower bottle-brush Geraldton-wax
Canada Alberta British Columbia Manitoba New Brunswick Newfoundland and Labrador North West Territories Nova Scotia Nunavut Ontario Prince Edward Island Québec Saskatchewan Yukon nanaimo bar CBC fiddlehead maple leaf Canadians garburator humidex maple syrup loonie polar bear grizzly bear Talahan Bear Dog ogopogo harlequin ducks woodpecker caribou Canada goose blueberries strawberries blackberries cloudberries raspberries gooseberries tuckamore snarbuckle bannikin bedlamer faffering bakeapple pemmican
Ireland Irish flag colcannon leprechaun water spaniel bluebell white-fronted goose Celtic cross St Patrick soda bread rhododendron potato bread Jack Russell terrier countryside famine wall sanvitalia (Irish eyes)
Malaysia elephant orang-utan crocodile buffalo butterfly centipede millipede firefly caterpillar mosquito rambutan pineapple mata-kucing durian mangosteen papaya dragon-fruit carambola rafflesia hibiscus bunga-telang frangipani proboscis-monkey silver-hair-monkey alligator Malaysian-coral-snake hornbill-bird flowerpecker Deepavali (Depawali, Dipavali, Dewali, Diwali, Divali, Dipotsavi, Dipapratipad) Thaipusam Hari-Raya Lunar-New-Year Vaisakhi-Day (Baisakhi-Day) Chap-Goh-Meh
South Africa South African flag impala protea koeksisters elephant rhinoceros hippopotamus buffalo gecko zebra nyala kudu wildebeest vervet monkey crocodile water monitor clivia jacaranda gazania strelitzia bromeliad polygala bobotie bunny chow lemon papaya banana mango beadwork telephone wire baskets Ndebele dolls warthog musicians teething beads
United Kingdom Union Jack Westminster Beefeater Windsor Castle highland dancers Ring of Brodgar Edinburgh Castle Border Collie hammer thrower birdwatcher Giants Causeway Mountains of Mourne potato bread flower of flax Atlantic Ocean kingfisher Welsh corgi laverbread daffodil bara brith hearlequin duck eisteddfod Stonehenge Westminster Bridge gooseberries strawberries BBC Queens’ Regiment bacon butty fish and chips bangers and mash spotted dick William Shakespeare liquorice allsorts
helicopter, locomotive, caterpillar, watermelon, kookaburra, motorcycle, grand piano, alligator, mashed potato, Easter Bunny, creepy crawly, cheeky monkey, clever puppy, birthday present, picking apples, big banana, camel rider, ballerina, taxi driver, soccer player, under water, hula dancer, television, Humpty Dumpty, finger painting, escalator
letterboxes, tiger lily, very windy, scary monster, service station, stripy tiger, hungry kitty, cosy jacket, clever lady, aviator, tractor driver, unicycle, shopping basket, stacking boxes, supermarket, calculator, shopping trolley, nice tomatoes, laundry basket, rubber duckie, pillowcases, dictionary, competition, excavator, chocolate crackles, agapanthus, Persian carpet, Cookie Monster, grand piano, tiny pencil
pencil sharpener, birthday candles, tape recorder, suit of armour, asthma puffer, graduation, Viking helmet, Hello Kitty, pressure cooker, motor scooter, airline pilot, ballroom dancing, table tennis, ten pin bowling, table tennis, exercising, scuba diving, entertainer, ballerina, hula dancer, opera singer, film director, portrait painter, carpet layer, fortune teller, respirator, coffee maker, vacuum cleaner, concertina
ukulele, movie camera, tennis player, toilet paper, salad sandwich, bunch of roses, fortune cookie, apple blossom, window cleaner, paper hanger, teeter totter, vaccination, milk and cookies, bunch of daisies, station wagon, music teacher, salad dressing, taxi driver, glass of water, education, swimming lesson, synthesizer, stormy weather, consultation, swimming teacher, exclamation, animation, plastic bottle, four-leaf clover, end of freeway
Word final schwa
grasshopper caterpillar woodpecker spider tiger panther koala gopher beaver otter alligator lobster llama boxer banana guava pizza hamburger cola tortilla pepper cucumber America Georgia Iowa California Minnesota Louisiana Alabama Arizona Montana Florida Indiana Alaska Oklahoma Virginia South Dakota Nebraska South Carolina West Virginia North Carolina Pennsylvania North Dakota North America South America Africa Australia Asia Canada soccer player pitcher basketballer catcher skier swimmer diver bowler server fencer archer weight lifter
painter dancer tailor builder singer doctor cleaner presenter bull fighter exterminator waiter construction worker teacher photographer sister dog trainer dressmaker interviewer driver shopper director barber welder window cleaner bricklayer roofer carpenter carpet layer concreter glazier
hippopotamus holiday Halloween Himalayas hairdresser hydrogen handkerchief harmonica horrible headmaster headmistress headquarters hexagon helicopter hilarious hollyhock honeycomb hospital housekeeper horseradish horticulture hydrangea housewarming Humpty Dumpty
pulling looking eating guessing feeding sitting playing mixing riding watering blowing feeding building holding dressing balancing listening saving see-sawing skipping cutting drumming singing talking running hiding finding hopping skate-boarding swinging dancing reading crying picking squirting tying brushing collecting vacuuming sneezing drinking hanging marching knitting skating jumping folding tickling fishing climbing relaxing sliding skiing diving kicking finishing smelling drawing floating recycling jumping throwing making giving pretending toasting picnicking dancing cart-wheeling selling sailing walking
Sonority Sequencing Principle (SSP)
Sonority is the amount of stricture or ‘sound’ in a consonant or vowel (Roca & Johnson, 1999). Steriade (1990) proposed a numerical sonority hierarchy: a list of phones, ordered according to degree of oral stricture and sound. Most sonorous are vowels (= 0), then glides (=1), liquids (= 2), nasals (= 3), voiced fricatives (= 4), voiceless fricatives (=5), voiced stops (=6) and finally the voiceless stops (=7) are least sonorant.
We prefer to articulate words with a rise and fall in sonority. For example, in 'tramp' we start with the least sonorous segment (voiceless stop /t/) then liquid /r/ with the vowel /æ/ at the peak, then the less sonorous nasal /m/, finally falling to the least sonorous voiceless stop /p/. This comes more ‘naturally’ to us than 'rtapm', for example, even though the segments are the same. This rise-then-fall tendency is called the sonority sequencing principle or SSP.
Consonant clusters are more marked than singletons, but are some clusters more marked than others? One approach to classifying two-element consonant clusters according to markedness is to rank them according to their sonority difference score, using their numerical values from a sonority hierarchy (Ohala, 1999). For example, /kw/ (7 minus 1) has a sonority difference score of 6, whereas /fl/ (5 minus 2) scores 3. Clusters with SMALL sonority differences of 2, 3 or 4 may better promote generalised change to singletons and clusters. Gierut (1999), Gierut & Champion (2001), and Morrisette, Farris & Gierut (2006) provide evidence and target selection guidelines.
Click here for pictures and (mainly) monosyllabic words with 3-element clusters and the more marked 2-element clusters. Below you will find long words that start with clusters and adjuncts.
Targeting the 3-element Clusters
Prior knowledge of the second element and the third element is required.
The 3-element consonant clusters, /spr/ /str/ /skr/ /spl/ and /skw/ should only be targeted if the child already has the relevant stop (/p/, /t/ or /k/) and the relevant liquid (/l/) or glide (/w/) present in his or her phonemic inventory. For example, if targeting /skw/ the child should have productive knowledge of /k/ and /w/, but does not need to have productive knowledge of /s/.
Targeting the 2-element Clusters
Prior knowledge of the first element and/or the second element is not required.
The 2-element clusters, /sm, /sn/, /fl/ etc. can be targeted irrespective of whether the child has previous knowledge of either or both of the two elements. For example, in targeting /sl/ the child may or may not have previous knowledge of /s/ and/or /l/.
Long words starting with /spr/, /str/, /skr/, /spl/ and /skw/
springboard spray-paint sprinkler straightjacket streetlight strawberry strongroom streamers stratosphere stretcher scribble scrunchie scrambled-eggs scrapbook splinter splashes splutter squabble squeamish squeegee squirrel squiggle
Long words starting with /sm/ and /sn/
Sonority Difference = 2
smithereens smokestack smelly smidgen smoothie smarty-pants snack-bar sniffle snazzy snooker snowball snorkeler snippets
Long words starting with /fl/, /fr/, /θr/, /sl/ and /ʃr/
Sonority Difference = 3
flabbergasted flagpole flashlight flat-mates flavourings flourmill fleabag floodlight floorboards flower-shop flotilla flywheel fragrance fraction fruit-shop frankfurter freckles freebie freezer frogman frosting fragment fracture framework thresher three-hundred thriller throttle threadbare threshold sleepwalker slowcoach sluicegate slaphappy sleigh-bells slapstick shrubbery shrunken shredder
Long words starting with /bl/, /br/, /dr/, /ɡl/, /ɡr/ and /sw/
Sonority Difference = 4
blindfold blackboard blizzard blender blister blackberry blanket blood-donor bleeper blinkers blueberry breakwater bracelet bridegroom bracket breakfast branches broomstick bricklayer brolly driver drainhole driftwood dredger drawbridge dresser drapery drawstring dry-cleaner dressmaker drumstick drizzle
glacier glitter glassware glutton globetrotter glockenspiel graduation greasepaint grotto grader griddle greenhouse graffiti grindstone greyhound grandparents graveyard grapevine grassland gravel groundsheet sweatband swallow swimmer swami sweater sweetheart swimsuit swagman swampland swap-meet sweetener
Long words starting with /pl/, /pr/, /tr/, /kl/, /kr/, /tw/, and /kw/
planet plumber plantation platter plughole plaster playgroup protester precipice prickle prodigy precipitation princess producer preschool principal project prescription printer propeller present prisoner President prizewinner prospector tricycle trawler treadmill transmitter trophy traffic trumpeter treasure trampoline triangle trapeze trellis triplets
clothing clairvoyant cloudburst cleaner cloverleaf clapper clockwork classroom cloisters clotheshorse clutter klaxon crockery cranium criminal crocodile crayon crustacean cricketer crescent crusader crosspatch crisscross croquet cruiser cryptographer twilight twiglet twister twinset Twitter Tweedle-dum Tweedle-dee quartet quadrangle quarter quagmire choirmaster question-mark qualifications quarrel quintet quicksand quarry quizmaster
Long words starting with /sp/, /st/ and /sk/
spaceship speaker spectacles speedometer sportswear spoonful storyteller steamroller stadium staircase studio steamer stable stethoscope standpipe stomachache steeplechase storeroom stargazer sterilizer stirrup statue student stowaway skyrocket sketchbook scoreboard skullduggery scaffolding schoolteacher skinflint scarecrow scooter scavenger scholar skullcap skateboard skeleton scullery skedaddle