Table 2 - Phonological Processes

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Bowen, C. (2011). Table 2: Phonological Processess. Retrieved from on [insert the date that you retrieved the file here].

All children make predictable pronunciation errors (not really 'errors' at all, when you stop to think about it) when they are learning to talk like adults. These 'errors' are called phonological processes, or phonological deviations. In Table 2 are the common phonological processes found in children's speech while they are learning the adult sound-system of English.

Table 2
Phonological Processes in Typical Speech Development

Pre-vocalic voicing

car = gar

A voiceless sound preceding a vowel is replaced by a voiced sound.
Word final devoicing red = ret A final voiced consonant is replaced by a voiceless consonant
Final consonant deletion boat = bo A final consonant is omitted (deleted) from a word.
Velar fronting car = tar A back sound is replaced by a front sound.
Palatal fronting ship = sip sh or zh are replaced b y s or z respectively
Consonant harmony cup = pup The pronunciation of a word is influenced by one of the sounds it 'should' contain.
Weak syllable deletion telephone = teffone Weak (unstressed) syllables are deleted from words of more than one syllable.
Cluster reduction try = ty A cluster element is deleted or replaced.
Gliding of liquids ladder = wadder Liquids are replaced by glides.
Stopping ship = tip A stop consonant replaces a fricative or affricate.

See also

Table 1 Intelligibility

Table 3 Elimination of Phonological Processes

Table 4 Phonetic Development

Inconsistency in Child Phonology

Speech and Language Development Index