Table 2 - Phonological Processes

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Bowen, C. (2011). Table 2: Phonological Processes. Retrieved from on [insert the date that you retrieved the file here].

All children make predictable pronunciation errors (not really 'errors' at all, when you stop to think about it) when they are learning to talk like adults. These 'errors' are called phonological processes, or phonological deviations. In Table 2 are the common phonological processes found in children's speech while they are learning the adult sound-system of English.

Table 2
Phonological Processes in Typical Speech Development

Pre-vocalic voicing

car = gar

A voiceless sound preceding a vowel is replaced by a voiced sound.
Word final devoicing red = ret A final voiced consonant is replaced by a voiceless consonant
Final consonant deletion boat = bo A final consonant is omitted (deleted) from a word.
Velar fronting car = tar A back sound is replaced by a front sound.
Palatal fronting ship = sip sh or zh are replaced b y s or z respectively
Consonant harmony cup = pup The pronunciation of a word is influenced by one of the sounds it 'should' contain.
Weak syllable deletion telephone = teffone Weak (unstressed) syllables are deleted from words of more than one syllable.
Cluster reduction try = ty One or more cluster elements are deleted (try = ty) or replaced (try = pwy).
Gliding of liquids ladder = wadder Liquids are replaced by glides.
Stopping ship = tip A stop consonant replaces a fricative or affricate.

More information

There is a more detailed (and more "technical") account of the elimination of phonological processes, citing Grunwell (1987) in Bowen, 2015, p. 73.

Bowen, C. (1998). Developmental phonological disorders. A practical guide for families and teachers. Melbourne: ACER Press.

Bowen, C. (2015). Children's speech sound disorders, 2nd Edition. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Grunwell, P. (1987). Clinical phonology, 2nd Ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

Grunwell, P. (1997). Natural phonology. In M. Ball & R. Kent (Eds.), The new phonologies: Developments in clinical linguistics. San Diego, CA: Singular Publishing Group, Inc.

See also

Table 1 Intelligibility

Table 3 Elimination of Phonological Processes

Table 4 Phonetic Development

Inconsistency in Child Phonology

Speech and Language Development Index

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